Infertility is one of the most important problems of young couples these days.
Many couples face IVF when referring to infertility centers. One of the most effective and ultimate ways to treat infertility today is to use IVF. This method is usually done after trying other methods of pregnancy.
What is IVF?
IVF means in-vitro-fertilization and this is a new way to treat infertility. In this method, the egg is fertilized outside the mother’s body and then transferred to the uterus for more probable growth.
IVF is a complex process of several medications and combinations that treat infertility and prevent the genetic problems that the infant may have.
In this method, mature and complete oocytes are taken from the ovaries and fertilized by sperm in vitro. After some time, these fertilized eggs are transferred back to the uterus. This takes about three weeks or more.
IVF is one of the most effective methods of infertility treatment among couples because this method uses the parent’s sperm and egg. In some cases, the uterus may not be able to hold the embryo, so a rented uterus may be used.
The younger the age, the higher the IVF response. The chance of getting pregnant in this way depends on some important factors such as age and genetics.
IVF is a relatively costly and time-consuming procedure. Young couples can usually use less risky and less invasive methods before undergoing IVF.
Many women need more than one round of IVF surgery. This process can take months. Sometimes it works in the first stage, and sometimes by repeating it, fertility results.
IVF certainly raises the chances of getting pregnant, but because of the different body types, IVF may not work for everyone.
What is Infertility?
Lack of fertility after a year of unprotected intercourse is called a woman’s infertility.
The probability of pregnancy is about 25% in a menstrual cycle. A healthy woman should become pregnant within six months of non-prevention. Finally, 90% of women become pregnant after one year. About 10% to 15% of women who are not pregnant after one year are suffering from infertility.
Many infertility problems are resolved by obstetricians and gynecologists today, but in some cases, the cause of some infertility remains unknown.
One of the biggest factors affecting infertility rates is aging.
Women’s fertility reaches its peak at the age of 20 to 24 years. After this age, fertility decreases gradually. Also, with age, the rate of responsiveness to treatments is significantly reduced. Laboratory methods such as IVF also have a better response at younger ages.
The more you find out the infertility problem at an earlier age, the easier to treat it. There are also many problems with age, such as genetic problems, congenital neonates, and miscarriages, and the risk of congenital defects increases.
Ovarian dysfunction, poor egg quality, and lack of ovarian reserve are factors that occur with age. These factors are also one of the most important causes of couples’ reduced chance of fertility.
With age, some problems such as uterine adhesions and pelvic infections increase. These factors, together with factors such as obesity, hormonal and metabolic disorders, also increase the likelihood of infertility. Having regular and timely periods does not indicate a woman’s fertility or infertility.
Fortunately, today, many couples can have children using different methods, including IVF.
What are the chances of a healthy baby giving birth by IVF?
The first factor in this debate is age. The younger the IVF applicant, the higher the probability of a healthy baby being born with using one’s eggs. For women over 41, it is recommended to use donated eggs to increase the chance of success.
Those who have already given birth have a higher chance of using IVF than women who have never been pregnant.
Women who do not have a healthy lifestyle, have been smoking for long years or have obesity, reduce their chances of IVF success by up to 50%. Excessive alcohol and caffeine use can also have their disadvantages and can have a negative impact on pregnancy.
In the past, to get the best possible chance, they would lay 3 to 8 eggs in the uterus, which would most likely lead to the birth of twins. Twins can cause premature birth and other complications for the mother and baby. The safest method is to transfer one embryo.
Phase of ovarian stimulation for ovulation
Medication should be taken 8 to 14 days before IVF to stimulate the ovaries to produce mature and ready-to-fertilize eggs.
These fertility medicines help the oocytes grow and follicles.
Your doctor will remove these ready-made eggs from the ovaries and fertilize them with sperm in the lab to become pregnant. The doctor places one or more eggs directly into the uterus. Pregnancy occurs when the oocytes are placed in the uterus layers.
The applicant typically needs one to two weeks to ovulate. It is necessary to stimulate the uterus by injectable hormones to release more eggs.
The number of eggs should be greater to increase the chance of them being fertilized. Some eggs are not normally fertile, and about two-thirds of the eggs are capable of fertility.
The doctors need an average of 10 to 20 eggs for IVF.
During IVF operation
During the operation with the analgesics given to the patient, no pain will be felt during the operation, but he will also be under the supervision of an anesthesiologist.
The patient underwent light anesthesia during IVF surgery, and the reproductive specialist uses a small needle attached to the suction device. The oocytes are gently removed from the ovaries and fertilized by sperm in a specialized laboratory.
The doctor will extract 10 to 20 eggs with high accuracy.
The eggs are placed in a liquid in a laboratory environment. Eggs that appear healthy and mature are fertilized with sperm. Three to five days after fertilization, the embryo is implanted in the uterus again. However, all of the eggs may not be fertilized successfully.
The whole process of mature eggs extraction from the uterus lasts about 30 minutes.
Before performing IVF
Before deciding on this procedure, couples should consult with their doctor about all the issues. This consult is including the potential risks and the extent of the response. In the end, your doctor will decide if this method is right for you.
Before deciding to do this, keep in mind that the success rate largely depends on the age of the applicant.
Before doing so, couples should undergo various screening tests for eggs and sperm. Some of these tests include:
Egg storage test: This test is performed to determine the quantity and quality of eggs. An IVF doctor examines follicle-stimulating hormone and estrogen levels during the first few days of menstruation. The doctor will check the results with an ultrasound of the ovaries.
Sperm analysis: The treating physician should check the sperm count and quality analysis before starting the IVF process.
Infectious Disease Screening: Couples will certainly be screened for infectious diseases, including HIV, before doing IVF.
Embryo transfer: Your doctor will perform tests on your uterine depth and techniques to increase your chances of success.
Uterine examination: First, a thorough uterine examination is very important. The doctor carefully examines the extent of the lining of the uterus by sonohysterography. In this way, a special liquid is injected into the uterus through the cervix and performs ultrasound from the uterus.
Another method for intrauterine examination is hysteroscopy, which is performed by a thin, flexible telescope (hysteroscope). It enters into the vagina and cervix. Besides, checking the fallopian tubes is important.
Important questions before starting the IVF cycle include:
How many embryos are transferred into the uterus?
The number of embryos transferred depends on the age of the applicant and the number of eggs retrieved.
The older you are, the more fetuses are usually transferred into the uterus to increase the chances of pregnancy.
What about other fertilized eggs?
The doctor can freeze the extra embryos for many years to use them later on.
Also in other cases, these embryos can be donated to another couple who have infertility status. In other cases, the clinic will discard the remaining embryos.
If more than one fertilized egg is transferred to the mother’s womb, the chance of twin birth increases. Twin or triplet embryos have many risks for both mother and fetus.
The IVF cycle includes the following steps:
Embryo transferring to the uterus
A complete IVF cycle takes at least two to three weeks, and in some cases will take longer.
Laboratory fertilization is typically performed in two ways:
Once the eggs arrive in the laboratory, the specialists begin their work to select the most mature and evaluate the quality of the eggs.
Normal fertilization, which fertilizes eggs with and healthy sperms in vitro, is called conventional inoculation.
The second method is the injection of sperm cytoplasm. In this way, one healthy sperm is injected directly into each egg. This method’s name is ICSI. In certain situations where sperm quality is not high on the other hand, IVF efforts are not responsive; the doctor will use the other methods for egg fertility.
Using vaginal ultrasound and blood tests, doctors can determine the extent of follicles development and the response rate to ovarian stimulation.
The use of any of these methods depends on the opinion of the infertility specialist. Both methods have a nearly equal chance of success.
IVF can be canceled for a variety of reasons, including inappropriate follicle counts and premature ovulation. In this case, the doctor may change the dosage of medicine, and may eventually recommend that you find another donor.
Embryo transferring to the uterus
The doctor guides the uterus through the cervix using a long, flexible catheter containing several embryos suspended in a fluid. If the transferred is successful, the embryo will nest in the womb after 6 to 10 days.
After embryo transfer
After the embryo transfer operation, you will have no particular problems and will only experience vague congestion. It is better to avoid heavy work. If you have severe or moderate pain after a fetus transplant, make sure to contact your doctor immediately. You may have an ovarian infection or torsion.
After the embryo transfer operation and about two weeks later, the doctor will take a blood test from the mother to determine if she is pregnant.
If a pregnancy has occurred, the doctor will refer the mother to a gynecologist for receiving prenatal care.
If a person was not pregnant, after the menstrual period, she may experience the necessary measures for another IVF.
What are the chances of a healthy baby giving birth by IVF?
The first factor in this debate is age. The younger the IVF applicant, the higher the probability of a healthy baby being born using one’s eggs.
It is recommended to women over 41 to use donated eggs to increase the chance of success.
Lifestyle: Women who have not a healthy lifestyle, smoking for years, or those who are obese, they reduce the chance of IVF success by up to 50%. Using excessive alcohol and caffeine can also have its disadvantages and can have a bad influence on pregnancy.
Side effects after IVF:
Severe vaginal bleeding
Blood in the urine
Fever over 38 degrees Celsius